Ginsenoside Rg5 increases cardiomyocyte resistance to ischemic injury. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Ginsenoside Rg5 increases cardiomyocyte resistance to ischemic injury through regulation of mitochondrial hexokinase-II and dynamin-related protein 1.
Cell Death Dis. 2017 Feb 23 ;8(2):e2625. Epub 2017 Feb 23. PMID: 28230856
Hexokinase-II (HK-II) and dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) regulate mitochondrial function differently. This study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effect of ginsenoside Rg5 (Rg5) with emphasis on the regulation of mitochondrial HK-II and Drp1. Saturated acid palmitate (PA) stimulation increased lactate accumulation and induced cellular acidification by impairing the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) in cardiomyocytes, leading to HK-II dissociation from mitochondria. Rg5 improved PDH activity and prevented cellular acidification by combating fatty-acid oxidation, contributing to protecting mitochondrial HK-II. HK-II binding to mitochondria prevented mitochondrial Drp1 recruitment, whereas Drp1 activation decreased the content of mitochondrial HK-II, demonstrating the reciprocal control for binding to mitochondria. Rg5 promoted Akt translocation to mitochondria and increased HK-II binding to mitochondria while coordinately suppressing Drp1 recruitment and mitochondrial fission. Akt inhibitor triciribine or knockdown of Akt with small interfering RNA diminished the effects of Rg5, indicating that Rg5 inhibited Drp1 activation and promoted HK-II mitochondrial binding through Akt activation. Rg5 prevented the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore and increased ATP production, resultantly increasing cardiomyocyte resistance to hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. Meanwhile, Rg5 prevented cell apoptosis with increased HK-II binding and reduced Drp1 recruitment to mitochondria in isoproterenol-induced ischemic heart of mice. Taken together, these findings not only established a previously unrecognized role of ginsenosides in cardioprotection but also suggest that mitochondrial HK-II binding and Drp1 recruitment could be targeted therapeutically to prevent ischemic injury in the heart.