Ginsenoside Rg5 overcomes chemotherapeutic multidrug resistance mediated by ABCB1 transporter:andstudy.
J Ginseng Res. 2020 Mar ;44(2):247-257. Epub 2018 Nov 8. PMID: 32148406
Background: Multidrug resistance (MDR) to chemotherapy drugs remains a major challenge in clinical cancer treatment. Here we investigated whether and how ginsenoside Rg5 overcomes the MDR mediated by ABCB1 transporterand.
Methods: Cytotoxicity and colon formation as well as the intracellular accumulation of ABCB1 substrates were carried out in MDR cancer cells A2780/T and A549/T for evaluating the reversal effects of Rg5. The expressions of ABCB1 and Nrf2/AKT pathway were determined by Western blotting. An A549/T cell xenograft model was established to investigate the MDR reversal activity of Rg5.
Results: Rg5 significantly reversed ABCB1-mediated MDR by increasing the intracellular accumulation of ABCB1 substrates without altering protein expression of ABCB1. Moreover, Rg5 activated ABCB1 ATPase and reduced verapamil-stimulated ATPase activity, suggesting a high affinity of Rg5 to ABCB1 binding site which was further demonstrated by molecular docking analysis. In addition, co-treatment of Rg5 and docetaxel (TXT) suppressed the expression of Nrf2 and phosphorylation of AKT, indicating that sensitizing effect of Rg5 associated with AKT/Nrf2 pathway. In nude mice bearing A549/T tumor, Rg5 and TXT treatment significantly suppressed the growth of drug-resistant tumors without increase in toxicity when compared to TXT given alone at same dose.
Conclusion: Therefore, combination therapy of Rg5 and chemotherapy drugs is a strategy for the adjuvant chemotherapy, which encourages further pharmacokinetic and clinical studies.