Ginsenoside Rh1 ameliorates high fat diet-induced obesity in mice by inhibiting adipocyte differentiation.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2013 ;36(1):102-7. PMID: 23302642
Ginseng (the root of Panax ginseng C. A. MEYER), which contains protopanaxadiols and protopanaxatriols as its main constituents, has been used for many disorders, such as cancer, diabetes, inflammation, and hyperlipidemia. Of these ginsenosides, protopanaxadiol ginsenoside Rh2 alone is reported to inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 in vitro. Therefore, we investigated the effect of protopanaxatriol ginsenoside Rh1 on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells and high fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice. Treatment with ginsenoside Rh1 inhibited adipogenesis, as evidenced by Oil red O staining and lipid droplet extraction assay. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that ginsenoside Rh1 decreased the expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-α, fatty acid synthase, and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein. Oral administration of ginsenoside Rh1 (20 mg/kg) suppressed body and epididymal fat weight gains and plasma triglyceride level in DIO mice. Ginsenoside Rh1 also inhibited the expressionsof PPAR-γ, C/EBP-α, fatty acid synthase, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, as well as F4/80, CD68, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β in DIO mice by real time PCR analysis. Based on these findings, ginsenoside Rh1 may ameliorate obesity, by inhibiting adipocyte differentiation and inflammation.