Ginsenoside Rh2 induces apoptosis and inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition in HEC1A and Ishikawa endometrial cancer cells.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017 Dec ;96:871-876. Epub 2017 Nov 6. PMID: 29078265
Jin Hee Kim
BACKGROUND: Anticancer effect of ginsenoside Rh2 has been found in various cancer cells. However, the anticancer effect of Rh2 in endometrial cancer cells is still unclear. We aimed to determine the anticancer effect of Rh2 and elucidate its mechanism in endometrial cancer cells, using HEC1A and Ishikawa cell lines, in this study.
METHODS: Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay, and cell apoptosis was visualized by TdT mediated-dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) method. Western blot were performed to detect the expression of apoptosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins. Further, cell invasion and migration assays were conducted to estimate cell migration and invasion abilities.
RESULTS: Rh2 treatment significantly suppressed cell proliferation in HEC1A and Ishikawa cells, in dose-dependent manner. Levels of cleaved poly adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase (PARP) and cleaved caspase-3 increased in the both cell lines with Rh2 compared with control. In Western blotting analysis after Rh2 treatment, the expression of E-cadherin increased, while the expression of EMT-related proteins including vimentin, TGF-β, and Snail markedly decreased in both cell lines. The cell invasion and migration assays results indicated that Rh2 inhibited the cell invasion and migration in HEC1A cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that Rh2 exerts the anticancer effect in endometrial cancer cells through the apoptosis induction and EMT inhibition.