Ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 protect the kidney from cisplatin-induced oxidative injury. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Protective effect of ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 on cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury in vitro and in vivo.
J Ginseng Res. 2017 Jul ;41(3):233-239. Epub 2016 Apr 6. PMID: 28701862
BACKGROUND: Nephrotoxicity is the major side effect in cisplatin chemotherapy. Previously, we reported that the ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 reduced cisplatin toxicity on porcine renal proximal epithelial tubular cells (LLC-PK1). Here, we aimed to evaluate the protective effect of ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 on kidney function and elucidate their antioxidant effect using in vitro and in vivo models of cisplatin-induced acute renal failure.
METHODS: An enriched mixture of ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 (KG-KH; 49.3% and 43.1%, respectively) was purified from sun ginseng (heat processed Panax ginseng). Cytotoxicity was induced by treatment of 20μM cisplatin to LLC-PK1 cells and rat model of acute renal failure was generated by single intraperitoneal injection of 5 mg/kg cisplatin. Protective effects were assessed by determining cell viability, reactive oxygen species generation, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, antioxidant enzyme activity, and histopathological examination.
RESULTS: The in vitro assay demonstrated that KG-KH (50 μg/mL) significantly increased cell viability (4.6-fold), superoxide dismutase activity (2.8-fold), and glutathione reductase activity (1.5-fold), but reduced reactive oxygen species generation (56%) compared to cisplatin control cells. KG-KH (6 mg/kg, per os) also significantly inhibited renal edema (87% kidney index) and dysfunction (71.4% blood urea nitrogen, 67.4% creatinine) compared to cisplatin control rats. Of note, KG-KH significantly recovered the kidney levels of catalase (1.2-fold) and superoxide dismutase (1.5-fold).
CONCLUSION: Considering the oxidative injury as an early trigger of cisplatin nephrotoxicity, our findings suggest that ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 protect the kidney from cisplatin-induced oxidative injury and help to recover renal function by restoring intrinsic antioxidant defenses.