Glucosamine exerts a neuroprotective effect via suppression of inflammation in rat brain ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Glia. 2010 Nov 15 ;58(15):1881-92. PMID: 20737476
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, College of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon, South Korea.
We investigated the neuroprotective effect of glucosamine (GlcN) in a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model. At the highest dose used, intraperitoneal GlcN reduced infarct volume to 14.3%± 7.4% that of untreated controls and afforded a reduction in motor impairment and neurological deficits. Neuroprotective effects were not reproduced by other amine sugars or acetylated-GlcN, and GlcN suppressed postischemic microglial activation. Moreover, GlcN suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced upregulation of proinflammatory mediators both in vivo and in culture systems using microglial or macrophage cells. The anti-inflammatory effects of GlcN were mainly attributable to its ability to inhibit nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) activation. GlcN inhibited LPS-induced nuclear translocation and DNA binding of p65 to both NF-κB consensus sequence and NF-κB binding sequence of inducible nitric oxide synthase promoter. In addition, we found that GlcN strongly repressed p65 transactivation in BV2 cells using Gal4-p65 chimeras system. P65 displayed increased O-GlcNAcylation in response to LPS; this effect was also reversed by GlcN. The LPS-induced increase in p65 O-GlcNAcylation was paralleled by an increase in interaction with O-GlcNAc transferase, which was reversed by GlcN. Finally, our results suggest that GlcN or its derivatives may serve as novel neuroprotective or anti-inflammatory agents.