Glucose intolerance in monosodium glutamate obesity is linked to hyperglucagonemia and insulin resistance inα cells.
J Cell Physiol. 2018 Oct 14. Epub 2018 Oct 14. PMID: 30317580
Thiago R Araujo
Obesity predisposes to glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). This disease is often characterized by insulin resistance, changes in insulin clearance, andβ-cell dysfunction. However, studies indicate that, for T2D development, disruptions in glucagon physiology also occur. Herein, we investigated the involvement of glucagon in impaired glycemia control in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-obese mice. Male Swiss mice were subcutaneously injected daily, during the first 5 days after birth, with MSG (4 mg/g body weight [BW]) or saline (1.25 mg/g BW). At 90 days of age, MSG-obese mice were hyperglycemic, hyperinsulinemic, and hyperglucagonemic and had lost the capacity to increase their insulin/glucagon ratio when transitioning from the fasting to fed state, exacerbating hepatic glucose output. Furthermore, hepatic protein expressions of phosphorylated (p)-protein kinase A (PKA) and cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB), and of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) enzyme were higher in fed MSG, before and after glucagon stimulation. Increased pPKA and phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase content were also observed in white fat of MSG. MSG islets hypersecreted glucagon in response to 11.1 and 0.5 mmol/L glucose, a phenomenon that persisted in the presence of insulin. Additionally, MSG α cells were hypertrophic displayingincreased α-cell mass and immunoreactivity to phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (pmTOR) protein. Therefore, severe glucose intolerance in MSG-obese mice was associated with increased hepatic glucose output, in association with hyperglucagonemia, caused by the refractory actions of glucose and insulin in α cells and via an effect that may be due to enhanced mTOR activation.