Effect of glutamine supplementation on cardiometabolic risk factors and inflammatory markers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2021 Apr 17 ;21(1):190. Epub 2021 Apr 17. PMID: 33865313
BACKGROUND: Evidence exists that glutamine plays multiple roles in glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and anti-inflammatory effects. This systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials aimed to assess the effect of glutamine supplementation on cardio-metabolic risk factors and inflammatory markers.
METHODS: The processes of systematic reviews and meta-analyses were performed according to the PRISMA checklist. PubMed, Web of Sciences, Cochrane library, and Scopus databases were search for relevant studies without time or language restrictions up to December 30, 2020. All randomized clinical trials which assessed the effect of glutamine supplementation on"glycemic indices","level of triglyceride,"and"inflammatory markers"were included in the study. The effect of glutamine supplementation on cardio-metabolic risk factors and inflammatory markers was assessed using a standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Heterogeneity between among studies was assessed using Cochran Q-statistic and I-square. Random/fixed-effects meta-analysis method was used to estimate the pooled SMD. The risk of bias for the included trials was evaluated using the Cochrane quality assessment tool.
RESULTS: In total, 12 studies that assessed the effect of glutamine supplementation on cardio-metabolic risk factors were included in the study. Meta-analysis showed that glutamine supplementation significantly decreased significantly serum levels of FPG [SMD: - 0.73, 95% CI - 1.35, - 0.11, I: 84.1%] and CRP [SMD: - 0.58, 95% CI - 0.1, - 0.17, I: 0%]. The effect of glutamine supplementation on other cardiometabolic risk factors was not statistically significant (P > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that glutamine supplementation might have a positive effect on FPG and CRP; both of which are crucial as cardio-metabolic risk factors. However, supplementation had no significant effect on other cardio-metabolic risk factors.