-Enhanced Extract and Adriamycin Antiproliferative Effect on PC-3 Prostate Cancer Cells.
Nutr Cancer. 2019 Jul 5:1-13. Epub 2019 Jul 5. PMID: 31274029
Prostate cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in men worldwide, which is almost incurable, once it progresses into the metastatic stage. Adriamycin (ADR) is a known chemotherapeutic agent that causes severe side effects. In recent years, studies in natural plant products have revealed their anticancer activities. In particular,enhanced extract (GGE), commonly known as licorice, has been reported to exert antiproliferative properties against cancer cells. In this study, the cytotoxic potential of GGE was assessed in PC-3 cells, when it is administrated alone or in combination with Adriamycin. PC-3 cells were treated with GGE and/or ADR, and the inhibition of cell proliferation was evaluated by the MTT assay. Cell cycle alterations and apoptosis rate were measured through flow cytometry. Expression levels of autophagy-related genes were evaluated with specific ELISA kits, Western blotting, and real-time PCR, while NMR spectrometry was used to identify the implication of specific metabolites. Our results demonstrated that GGE alone or in co-treatment with ADR shows antiproliferative properties against PC-3 cells, which are mediated by both apoptosis and autophagy mechanisms.