Glycyrrhizin protects mice against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Glycyrrhizin Protects Mice Against Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Inhibiting High-Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) Expression and Neuronal HMGB1 Release.
Front Immunol. 2018 ;9:1518. Epub 2018 Jul 2. PMID: 30013568
The inflammatory mediator high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of human multiple sclerosis (MS) and mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Glycyrrhizin (GL), a glycoconjugated triterpene extracted from licorice root, has the ability to inhibit the functions of HMGB1; however, GL's function against EAE has not been thoroughly characterized to date. To determine the benefit of GL as a modulator of neuroinflammation, we used anstudy to examine GL's effect on EAE along with primary cultured cortical neurons to study the GL effect on HMGB1 release. Treatment of EAE mice with GL from onset to the peak stage of disease resulted in marked attenuation of EAE severity, reduced inflammatory cell infiltration and demyelination, decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IFN-γ, IL-17A, IL-6, and transforming growth factor-beta 1, and increased IL-4 both in serum and spinal cord homogenate. Moreover, HMGB1 levels in different body fluids were reduced, accompanied by a decrease in neuronal damage, activated astrocytes and microglia, as well as HMGB1-positive astrocytes and microglia. GL significantly reversed HMGB1 release into the medium induced by TNF-α stimulation in primary cultured cortical neurons. Taken together, the results indicate that GL has a strong neuroprotective effect on EAE mice by reducing HMGB1 expression and release and thus can be used to treat central nervous system inflammatory diseases, such as MS.