Influence of glyphosate and its formulation (Roundup) on the toxicity and bioavailability of metals to Ceriodaphnia dubia.
Environ Pollut. 2005 Nov;138(1):59-68. PMID: 15878796
Department of Biology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR, China.
This study examined the toxicological interaction between glyphosate (or its formulation, Roundup) and several heavy metals to a freshwater cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia. We demonstrated that all binary combinations of Roundup and metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) exhibited "less than additive" mixture toxicity, with 48-h LC50 toxic unit>1. Addition of glyphosate alone could significantly reduce the acute toxicity of Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn (but not Hg and Se). The ratio between glyphosate and metal ions was important in determining the mitigation of metal toxicity by glyphosate. A bioaccumulation study showed that in the presence of glyphosate the uptake of some metals (e.g. Ag) was halted but that of others (e.g. Hg) was increased significantly. Therefore, our study strongly suggests that glyphosate and its commercial formulations can control the toxicity as well as the bioavailability of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystems where both groups of chemicals can co-occur.