Gossypol Reduces Metastasis and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition by Targeting Protease in Human Cervical Cancer.
Am J Chin Med. 2021 ;49(1):181-198. Epub 2020 Dec 26. PMID: 33371817
Metastasis is the most prevalent cause of cancer-associated deaths amongst patients with cervical cancer. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is essential for carcinogenesis, and it confers metastatic properties to cancer cells. Gossypol is a natural polyphenolic compound with anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant, and anticancer activities. In this study, we investigated the antimetastatic and antitumour effects of gossypol on human cervical cancer cells (HeLa and SiHa cells). Gossypol exerted a strong inhibition effect on the migration and invasion of human cervical cancer cells. It reduced the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) pathway-mediated expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and urokinase-type plasminogen activator, subsequently inhibiting the invasion of SiHa cells. In addition, gossypol reversed EMT induced by transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-[Formula: see text]1) and up-regulated epithelial markers, such as E-cadherin but significantly suppressed Ras homolog family member (Rho)A, RhoB, and p-Samd3. The tail vein injection model showed that gossypol treatment via oral gavage reduced lung metastasis. Gossypol also decreased tumour growthin the nude mouse xenograft model. All these findings suggest that gossypol suppressed the invasion and migration of human cervical cancer cells by targeting the FAK signaling pathway and reversing TGF-[Formula: see text]1-induced EMT. Hence, gossypol warrants further attention for basic mechanistic studies and drug development.