Grape seed extract dowregulates HIV-1 entry in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Grape seed extract proanthocyanidins downregulate HIV-1 entry coreceptors, CCR2b, CCR3 and CCR5 gene expression by normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
Biol Res. 2002;35(3-4):421-31. PMID: 12462994
Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, Kaleida Health System, Buffalo General Hospital, Buffalo, NY, USA. email@example.com
Flavonoids and related polyphenols, in addition to their cardioprotective, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and anti-allergic activities, also possess promising anti-HIV effects. Recent studies documented that the beta-chemokine receptors, CCR2b, CCR3 and CCR5, and the alpha-chemokine receptors, CXCR1, CXCR2 and CXCR4 serve as entry coreceptors for HIV-1. Although flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds elicit anti-HIV effects such as inhibition of HIV-1 expression and virus replication, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects remain to be clearly elucidated. We hypothesize that flavonoids exert their anti-HIV effects, possibly by interfering at the HIV co-receptor level. We investigated the effect of flavonoid constituents of a proprietary grape seed extract (GSE) on the expression of HIV-1 coentry receptors by immunocompetent mononuclear leukocytes. Our results showed that GSE significantly downregulated the expression of the HIV-1 entry co-receptors, CCR2b, CCR3 and CCR5 in normal PBMC in a dose dependent manner. Further, GSE treated cultures showed significantly lower number of CCR3 positive cells as quantitated by flow cytometry analysis which supports RT-PCR gene expression data. Investigations of the mechanisms underlying the anti-HIV-1 effects of grape seed extracts may help to identify promising natural products useful in the prevention and/or amelioration of HIV-1 infection.