Grape seed polyphenols protect cardiac cells from apoptosis via induction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes.
J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Mar 7 ;55(5):1695-701. Epub 2007 Feb 13. PMID: 17295515
Grape seed extract (GSE) has been reported to exert protective effects on various forms of cardiac disorders. The cardiovascular protective effects of GSE are believed to be ascribed to its antioxidative properties. A series of studies have demonstrated that polyphenols are instrumental for the antioxidative properties of GSE. This study was undertaken to investigate whether two major polyphenols isolated from GSE (catechin and proanthocyanidin B4) could increase the endogenous antioxidant enzymes in cardiomyocytes, and whether such increased cellular defenses could provide protection against oxidative cardiac cell injury. Incubation of cardiac H9C2 cells with micromolar concentrations of catechin or proanthocyanidin B4 resulted in a significant induction of cellular antioxidant enzymes in a concentration-dependent fashion. Furthermore, catechine or proanthocyanidin B4 pretreatment led to a marked reduction in xanthine oxidase (XO)/xanthine-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and cardiac cell apoptosis. These results indicated that grape seed polyphenols (GSP) could protect against cardiac cell apoptosis via the induction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. This may be an important mechanism underlying the protective effects of GSE observed with various forms of cardiovascular disorders.