Grape seed proanthocyanidin ameliorates cardiac toxicity induced by boldenone undecylenate. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Ameliorates Cardiac Toxicity Induced by Boldenone Undecylenate through Inhibition of NADPH Oxidase and Reduction in the Expression of NOX2 and NOX4.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018 ;2018:9434385. Epub 2018 Jul 5. PMID: 30116498
The effect of anabolic androgenic steroids on the cardiovascular system is poorly understood. Increased production of free radicals is coupled to the pathophysiology of many alterations within the circulatory system. The only function of the enzyme family NADPH oxidases (NOXs) is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, this study investigated the beneficial role of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in ameliorating cardiac toxicity induced by the anabolic steroid Boldenone in male rats through NOX inhibition and reduction in the expression of NOX2 and NOX4. This study was conducted on forty male rats which are divided into four groups (normal control, positive control or GSPE, Boldenone, and posttreatment Boldenone with GSPE). A significant increase in relative body weight, relative heart weight, and hemodynamic parameters, as well as serum concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, creatine kinase-muscle brain, myoglobin, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, risk factor 1/2, K, and Cl, in treated rats with Boldenone when compared with control. We also noted a significant increase in the levels of cardiac malondialdehyde, HOgeneration in heart tissues, mRNA expression of NOX2 and NOX4, and immunoreactivity to proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Posttreated rats with Boldenone and GSPE ameliorated cardiac toxicity via inhibition of NOX and a reduction in alteration of the expression of NOX2, NOX4, and PCNA induced by Boldenone. These novel insights into the antioxidative activity of GSPE should serve as a basis for the development of improved chemopreventive or therapeutic strategies for cardiac toxicity.