Protective Effects of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins on the Kidneys of Diabetic Rats through the Nrf2 Signalling Pathway.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2020 ;2020:5205903. Epub 2020 Sep 29. PMID: 33062013
Background: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common cause of end-stage renal failure. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) is a powerful antioxidant that is believed to protect the kidney through antioxidant action. However, the underlying mechanism of GSPE protection against DN remains unclear.
Objective: To explore if GSPE can improve DN by activating nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidant response element signalling and to clarify its possible mechanism.. Ten healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly selected as controls. Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were randomly divided into three groups (10 animals/group): type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) group (untreated), L-GSPE group (treated with 125-mg/kg/day GSPE for 8 weeks), and H-GSPE group (treated with 250 mg/kg/day GSPE for 8 weeks).
Results: Renal histopathological results indicated limited pathological damage in GSPE-treated groups. Compared with the T2DM group, the H-GSPE group had significantly reduced kidney weight and renal index. Similarly, the levels of fasting blood glucose, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, urinary albumin, and renal malondialdehyde (<0.05) were also significantly decreased. In addition, GSPE significantly increased the levels of superoxide dismutase, total antioxidative capability, and glutathione (<0.05) as well as the protein levels of Nrf2, HO-1, glutathione S-transferase, and NAD (P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (<0.05).
Conclusion: The results indicate that GSPE reduced renal damage in rats with diabetes by activating the Nrf2 signalling pathway, which consequently increased the antioxidant capacity of the tissue. Therefore, GSPE is a potential natural agent for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy.