Dietary proanthocyanidins modulate melatonin levels in plasma and the expression pattern of clock genes in the hypothalamus of rats.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2015 May ;59(5):865-78. Epub 2015 Mar 23. PMID: 25677201
SCOPE: Circadian rhythms allow organisms to anticipate and adapt to environmental changes, and food components can adjust internal rhythms. Proanthocyanidins improve cardiovascular risk factors that exhibit circadian oscillations. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to determine whether proanthocyanidins can modulate body rhythms.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Male Wistar rats were orally gavaged with 250 mg grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE)/kg body weight at zeitgeber time (ZT) 0 (light on). Phenotypic biorhythm was evaluated by measuring the concentration of plasma melatonin and metabolites, using MNR-metabolomics, at several ZT. Remarkably, GSPE treatment maintained nocturnal melatonin levels at ZT3 and altered the oscillations of some metabolites in plasma. Quantification of expression of clock-core (Clock, Bmal1, Per2, Rorα, Rev-erbα) and clock-controlled (Nampt) genes in the hypothalamus by RT-PCR showed that this phenotypic alteration was concomitant with the modulation of the expression pattern of Bmal1 and Nampt. However, GSPE did not modulate the nocturnal expression of clock genes when administered at ZT12 (light off).
CONCLUSION: PAs could have chronobiological properties, although their activity depends largely on the time of administration.