Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins Improve White Adipose Tissue Expansion during Diet-Induced Obesity Development in Rats.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Sep 5 ;19(9). Epub 2018 Sep 5. PMID: 30189642
The development of metabolic complications associated with obesity has been correlated with a failure of white adipose tissue (WAT) to expand. Our group has previously reported that a 12-week administration of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) together with an obesogenic diet mitigated the development of cardiometabolic complications in rats. Using the same cohort of animals, we aim to elucidate whether the prevention of cardiometabolic complications by proanthocyanidins is produced by a healthier expansion of visceral WAT and/or an induction of the browning of WAT. For this, adipocyte size and number in retroperitoneal WAT (rWAT) were determined by histological analyses, and the gene expression levels of markers of adipogenesis, browning, and WAT functionality were quantified by RT-qPCR. The long-term administration of GSPE together with an obesogenic diet expanded rWAT via an increase in the adipocyte number and a preventive decrease in the adipocyte size in a dose-dependent manner. At the molecular level, GSPE seems to induce WAT adipogenesis through the upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Pparγ) in a Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1)-dependent manner. In conclusion, the healthier visceral WAT expansion induced by proanthocyanidins supplementation may explain the improvement in the cardiometabolic risks associated with obesogenic diets.