Synergistic Apoptotic Effect of D-Fraction From Grifola frondosa and Vitamin C on Hepatocellular Carcinoma SMMC-7721 Cells.
Integr Cancer Ther. 2016 May 5. Epub 2016 May 5. PMID: 27151580
The aim of this study was to investigate the anticancer effect of a combination of D-fraction polysaccharide from Grifola frondosa (DFP) and vitamin C (VC) on hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro. DFP is a bioactive extract from the maitake mushroom. Anticancer activity was demonstrated using various concentrations of DFP alone or in combination with VC against the human hepatocarcinoma SMMC-7721 cell line. To investigate the anticancer mechanism, studies designed to detect cell apoptosis were conducted. Results from the MTT assay indicated that a combination of DFP (0.2 mg/mL) and VC (0.3 mmol/L) led to a 70% reduction in cell viability. Flow cytometry results indicated that DFP/VC treatment induced apoptosis in approximately 65% SMMC-7721 cells. Cell cycle analysis identified cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase following DFP/VC treatment for 48 hours. In addition, cellular morphological changes were observed using transmission electron microscopy. Western blot analysis revealed that the upregulation of BAX, downregulation of Bcl-2, activation of poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP), and the release of cytochrome c were observed in cells treated with the combination of DFP/VC, which showed that the mechanism of anticancer activity in the SMMC-7721 hepatocarcinoma cells involved induction of apoptosis.