Group exercise has a positive effect on postmenopausal osteoporosis and osteopenia. - GreenMedInfo Summary
[The effect of group exercise on postmenopausal osteoporosis and osteopenia].
Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc. 2009 Aug-Oct;43(4):343-50. PMID: 19809232
KKTC Mehmet Reis Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Center, Nicosia, Cyprus.
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of group exercise on bone mineral density (BMD), pain, and quality of life in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and osteopenia. METHODS: The study included 16 osteoporotic (mean age 55.2 years) and 17 osteopenic (mean age 55.4 years) postmenopausal women whose diagnoses were made by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) showing T-scores of less than -2.5 and in a range of -1 to -2.5, respectively. Subjects having orthopedic, neurological, respiratory, vascular, metabolic, or mental problems were excluded. Each group received the same group exercise program for one hour three times a week for 21 weeks, supervised by a physiotherapist, and including breathing, warm-up, stretching, strengthening, balance, stabilization, and cooling exercises. All participants were evaluated before and after the exercise program by a visual analog scale for pain severity, by DEXA for BMD, and by QUALEFFO-41 (Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis) for quality of life. RESULTS: The two groups were similar with respect to age, height, and body mass index (p>0.05), but osteopenic women had a higher body weight (p<0.05). After the exercise program, both groups exhibited significant improvements in T-score, pain score, BMD, and all parameters of the QUALEFFO-41 (p<0.05). The mean T-scores before and after exercise were -2.7 + or - 0.2 and -2.4 + or - 0.5 in osteoporotic women, and -1.8 + or - 0.5 and -1.4 + or - 0.5 in osteopenic women, respectively. Following exercise, 43.8% of osteoporotic women had a T-score showing osteopenia, and 23.5% of osteopenic women had a T-score falling within the normal range. The two groups did not differ significantly with respect to the differences between the mean improvements obtained after the exercise program (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: This pilot study demonstrates the effectiveness of physiotherapist-supervised group exercise programs in decreasing pain and increasing BMD and quality of life of both osteoporotic and osteopenic women.