Effects of Psidium guajava leaf extract on secretion systems of Gram-negative enteropathogenic bacteria.
Microbiol Immunol. 2018 May 23. Epub 2018 May 23. PMID: 29790584
We screened a total of 672 plant-tissue extracts to search for phytochemicals that inhibit the function of the type III secretion system (T3SS) of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). Among candidates examined, we found that an extract from the leaves of Psidium guajava (guava) inhibited the secretion of the EspB protein from EPEC and EHEC without affecting bacterial growth. The guava extract (GE) also inhibited EPEC and EHEC from adhering to and injecting EspB protein into HEp-2 cells. GE seemed to block the translocation of EspB from the bacterial cells to the culture medium. In addition to EPEC and EHEC, GE also inhibited the T3SS of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. After exposure to GE, Y. pseudotuberculosis stopped the secretion of Yop proteins and lost its ability to induce the apoptosis of mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. S. Typhimurium exposed to GE ceased the secretion of Sip proteins and lost its ability to invade HEp-2 cells. GE inhibited EspC secretion, the type V secretion protein of EPEC, but not Shiga toxin2 from EHEC. Thus, our results suggest that guava leaves contain a novel type of antimicrobial compound that could be used for the therapeutic treatment and prevention of gram-negative enteropathogenic bacterial infections.