Gut microbiome dysbiosis and depression: a comprehensive review. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Gut Microbiome Dysbiosis and Depression: a Comprehensive Review.
Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2020 Jun 6 ;24(7):36. Epub 2020 Jun 6. PMID: 32506238
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The human gut microbiome is involved in a bi-directional communication pathway with the central nervous system (CNS), termed the microbiota-gut-brain axis. The microbiota-gut-brain axis is believed to mediate or modulate various central processes through the vagus nerve. The microbiota-gut-brain axis is involved with the production of microbial metabolites and immune mediators which trigger changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, and behavior. Little is understood about the utilization of microbiome manipulation to treat disease.
RECENT FINDINGS: Though studies exploring the role of the microbiome in various disease processes have shown promise, mechanisms remain unclear and evidence-based treatments for most illnesses have not yet been developed. The animal studies reviewed in the present investigation include an array of basic science studies that clarify mechanisms by which the microbiome may affect mental health. More evidence is needed, particularly as it relates to translating this work to humans. The studies presented in this review demonstrate encouraging results in the treatment of depression. Limitations include small sample sizes and heterogeneous methodology. The exact mechanism by which the gut microbiota causes or alters neuropsychiatric disease states is not fully understood. In this review, we focus on recent studies investigating the relationship between gut microbiome dysbiosis and the pathogenesis of depression.