The gut microbiome stability is altered by probiotic ingestion and improved by the continuous supplementation of galactooligosaccharide.
Gut Microbes. 2020 Jul 14:1-13. Epub 2020 Jul 14. PMID: 32663059
The stable gut microbiome plays a key role in sustaining host health, while the instability of gut microbiome also has been found to be a risk factor of various metabolic diseases. At the ecological and evolutionary scales, the inevitable competition between the ingested probiotic and indigenous gut microbiome can lead to an increase in the instability. It remains largely unclear if and how exogenous prebiotic can improve the overall gut microbiome stability in probiotic consumption. In this study, we usedHNU082 (Lp082) as a model probiotic to examine the impact of the continuous or pulsed supplementation of galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on the gut microbiome stability in mice using shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Only continuous GOS supplement promoted the growth of probiotic and decreased its single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mutation under competitive conditions. Besides, persistent GOS supplementation increased the overall stability, reshaped the probiotic competitive interactions withspecies in the indigenous microbiome, which was also evident by over-abundance of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) accordingly. Also, we identified a total of 793 SNPs arisen in probiotic administration in the indigenous microbiome. Over 90% of them derived fromspecies, which involved genes encoding transposase, CAZymes, and membrane proteins. However, neither GOS supplementation here de-escalated the overall adaptive mutations within the indigenous microbes during probiotic intake. Collectively, our study demonstrated the beneficial effect of continuous prebiotic supplementation on the ecological and genetic stability of gut microbiomes.