Regulatory effects of hawthorn polyphenols on hyperglycemic, inflammatory, insulin resistance responses, and alleviation of aortic injury in type 2 diabetic rats.
Food Res Int. 2021 Apr ;142:110239. Epub 2021 Feb 25. PMID: 33773689
Hawthorn polyphenol extract (HPE) is beneficial for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the mechanism underlying its beneficial effects remains unclear. We investigated the inhibitory effects and mechanisms of HPE on insulin resistance, inflammation, and aortic injury in T2D rats, using metformin (MF) as a positive control. High-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was used to determine the primary polyphenols in HPE. Hematoxylin&Eosin (H&E) staining was used to evaluate pathological conditions of the skeletal muscle, liver, and aorta vessels in each group. The levels of serum and intestinal tissue oxidative stress, tumor necrosis factorα (TNF-α), and inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) were also assessed. Western blotting was used to evaluate protein expression levels in the associated molecular pathway. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from colon contents were determined using headspace-gas chromatography-ion mobility chromatography. Our results showed that supplementation with 300 mg HPE/kg body weight over four weeks significantly improved total cholesterol (TC), total triglyceride (TG), insulin, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels in diabetic rats (p < 0.01). The lesions of skeletal muscle, liver, and aorta in diabetic rats were significantly improved. HPE supplementation also significantly downregulated the inflammatory factors (IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1) in the liver of diabetic rats via the SIRT1/AMPK/NF-κB signaling pathway. Furthermore, HPEsignificantly reduced insulin resistance in T2D rats by upregulating the phosphorylation of glucose absorption protein (GLUT4) and insulin resistance-associated proteins, p-IRS1, p-AKT, and p-PI3K, in the rat liver (p < 0.01). The findings show that HPE could also alleviate aortic injury by activating SIRT1 and regulating the NF-κB and Wnt2/β-catenin signaling pathways. Overall, the results of this study suggest that both HPE and MF have similar inhibitory effects on T2D in rats and that HPE could be used as afunctional food component in the adjuvant treatment of T2D.