Health benefits of cyanidin-3-glucoside as a potent modulator of Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress.
Inflammopharmacology. 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19. PMID: 33740221
Berries are natural sources of anthocyanins, especially cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), and exhibit significant antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective effects against various oxidative stress-induced disorders. C3G and its metabolites possess higher absorption and bioavailability, and interaction with gut microbiota may enhance their health benefits. Various in vitro studies have shown the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mitigating potential of C3G. However, in in vivo models, C3G exerts its cytoprotective properties by regulating the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant-responsive element (ARE) pathway. Despite existing reports stating various health benefits of C3G, its antioxidant potential by modulating the Nrf2 pathway remains less identified. This review discusses the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response of C3G in modulating oxidative stress against DNA damage, apoptosis, carcinogen toxicity, and inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, we have reviewed the recent clinical trial data to establish cross talk between a berry-rich diet and disease prevention.