A Herbal Mixture from Propolis, Pomegranate, and Grape Pomace Endowed with Anti-Inflammatory Activity in an In Vivo Rheumatoid Arthritis Model.
Molecules. 2020 May 11 ;25(9). Epub 2020 May 11. PMID: 32403241
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by the production of inflammatory factors. In order to overcome the side effects of currently used anti-inflammatory drugs, several attempts have been made to identify natural products capable of relieving RA symptoms. In this work, a herbal preparation consisting of propolis, pomegranate peel, and Aglianico grape pomace (PPP) extracts (4:1:1) was designed and evaluated for its effect on a murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model. Firstly, the chemical contents of four different Italian propolis collected in the Campania region (Italy) were here reported for the first time. LC-MS analyses showed the presence of 38 constituents, identified in all propolis extracts, belonging to flavonoids and phenolic acids classes. The Pietradefusi extract was the richest one and thus was selected to design the PPP preparation for the in vivo assay. Our results highlight the impact of PPP on RA onset and progression. By using in vivo CIA models, the treatment with PPP resulted in a delayed onset of the disease and alleviated the severity of the clinical symptoms. Furthermore, we demonstrated that early PPP treatment was associated with a reduction in serum levels of IL-17, IL-1b, and IL-17-triggering cytokines.