Herbicides altered nutrient composition in grapevine roots, leaves, grape juice. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Herbicides in vineyards reduce grapevine root mycorrhization and alter soil microorganisms and the nutrient composition in grapevine roots, leaves, xylem sap and grape juice.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Jun 3. Epub 2018 Jun 3. PMID: 29862481
Johann G Zaller
Herbicides are increasingly applied in vineyards worldwide. However, not much is known on potential side effects on soil organisms or on the nutrition of grapevines (Vitis vinifera). In an experimental vineyard in Austria, we examined the impacts of three within-row herbicide treatments (active ingredients: flazasulfuron, glufosinate, glyphosate) and mechanical weeding on grapevine root mycorrhization; soil microorganisms; earthworms; and nutrient concentration in grapevine roots, leaves, xylem sap and grape juice. The three herbicides reduced grapevine root mycorrhization on average by 53% compared to mechanical weeding. Soil microorganisms (total colony-forming units, CFU) were significantly affected by herbicides with highest CFUs under glufosinate and lowest under glyphosate. Earthworms (surface casting activity, density, biomass, reproduction) or litter decomposition in soil were unaffected by herbicides. Herbicides altered nutrient composition in grapevine roots, leaves, grape juice and xylem sap that was collected 11 months after herbicide application. Xylem sap under herbicide treatments also contained on average 70% more bacteria than under mechanical weeding; however, due to high variability, this was not statistically significant. We conclude that interdisciplinary approaches should receive more attentionwhen assessing ecological effects of herbicides in vineyard ecosystems.