Hesperetin Confers Neuroprotection by Regulating Nrf2/TLR4/NF-κB Signaling in an Aβ Mouse Model.
Mol Neurobiol. 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12. PMID: 30756299
Hesperetin is a bioactive flavonoid in the body, produced from hesperidin. No comprehensive studies have shown its protective effects in neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we hypothesized that hesperetin may protect the mice brain against Aβ-induced neurodegeneration. Twenty-four hours after intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ1-42, the treated group was injected hesperetin. For in vitro experiments, HT22 and BV-2 cells were used. Immunoblot, immunofluorescence, and behavioral analyses were used to evaluate the different parameters. Our results indicated that hesperetin significantly attenuated oxidative stress, as assessed by the expression of Nrf2/HO-1 and LPO and ROS assays, in the hippocampus, cortex, and in vitro HT22 cells. Similarly, activated glial cells were regulated by hesperetin, as assessed by the expression ofGFAP and Iba-1. Moreover, the expression of TLR4, p-NF-κB, and downstream targets was analyzed; the results showed that hesperetin reinstated the expression of these markers. The effects of hesperetin were further confirmed by using specific TLR4 and p-NF-κB inhibitors in BV-2 cells. Next, we evaluated Aβ pathology in the cortex, hippocampus, and HT22 cells, showing that hesperetin significantly reduced the Aβ pathology. Furthermore, the antiapoptotic effects of hesperetin were assessed, which showed strong antiapoptotic effects. Overall, the neuroprotective effect of hesperetin was foundto be a multipotent effect, involving the inhibition of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, apoptotic cell death, and cognitive consolidation. Given antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic potentials against Aβ-induced neurodegeneration and memory impairment, hesperetin may be a promising therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease-like neurological disorders.