Formononetin induces the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in prostate cancer cells via downregulation of the IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling pathway.
Pharm Biol. 2013 Dec 20. Epub 2013 Dec 20. PMID: 24359236
Abstract Context: Formononetin, an isoflavone, can inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells, including those of the prostate. However, its antitumor mechanism remains unclear. Aim: To investigate whether the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)/insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1 R) signaling pathway mediates the formononetin antitumor effect on prostate cancer cells. Materials and methods: The viability of PC-3 cells was measured by MTT assay 48 h after formononetin treatment (25, 50 and 100 μM). Formononetin-induced cell apoptosis was measured by Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry. Expression of Bax mRNA was detected by real-time PCR, and the expression levels of Bax and IGF-1 R proteins were detected by western blots. Results: At concentrations>12.5 μM, formononetin significantly inhibited the proliferation of human prostate cancer cells. Formononetin increased Bax mRNA and protein expression levels and decreased the expression levels of pIGF-1 R protein in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: High concentrations of formononetin-induced apoptosis in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells through inhibition of the IGF-1/IGF-1 R pathway.