Long-term dietary fiber intake and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a prospective cohort study of women.
Eur J Nutr. 2019 Jul 6. Epub 2019 Jul 6. PMID: 31280344
Maria Karolina Szmidt
PURPOSE: Until now, only two prospective cohort studies have investigated dietary fiber intake in relation to risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but neither examined long-term fiber intake. Both studies reported that total fiber intake was associated with decreased COPD risk; however, results for specific fiber sources were inconsistent. Thus, we prospectively evaluated the association between baseline and long-term intake of dietary fiber and COPD risk in a population-based prospective cohort of 35,339 Swedish women.
METHODS: Dietary fiber intake was assessed in 1987 and 1997 with a food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
RESULTS: During follow-up (2002-2014), 1557 COPD cases were identified via linkage to the Swedish National Patient Register. Long-term high dietary fiber intake (≥ 26.5 vs.< 17.6 g/day) was associated with a 30% (95% CI 17-41%) lower risk of COPD. For specific fiber sources, cereal (≥ 16.3 vs.< 9.4 g/day; HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.55-0.81) and fruit fiber (≥ 7.6 vs.< 2.6 g/day; HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.5-0.81), but not vegetable fiber intake (≥ 5.4 vs.< 2.2 g/day; HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.81-1.28) were associated with lower COPD risk. Current and ex-smokers with low long-term total fiber intake (< 17.6 g/day) compared to never smokers with high intake (≥ 26.5 g/day) had a 33-fold (95% CI 23.6-46.6) and tenfold (95% CI 7.0-16.3), respectively, higher risk of COPD.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that high fiber intake is a modifiable lifestyle factor which may decrease COPD risk primarily in current and ex-smokers.