Total Dietary Fats, Fatty Acids, and Omega-3/Omega-6 Ratio as Risk Factors of Breast Cancer in the Polish Population - a Case-Control Study.
In Vivo. 2020 Jan-Feb;34(1):423-431. PMID: 31882509
BACKGROUND/AIM: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women around the world and the leading cause of cancer-related death among women. The knowledge about modifiable risk factors, such as diet, can be an acceptable, cheap and non-pharmacological prevention tool. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dietary fat, dietary fatty acids, fish intake, and breast cancer in women.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A case-control study was designed. A total of 201 consecutive, newly diagnosed, polish female cancer patients (mean age: 58 years) and 201 one-to-one age-matched controls were enrolled. A standardised questionnaire assessing various socio-demographic, clinical, lifestyle, and dietary characteristics was applied via face-to-face interviews. Detailed dietary intake information was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were obtained using multiple unconditional logistic regression models controlling for non-dietary and dietary potential confounders.
RESULTS: Consumption of polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) over 10% of total energy intake was associated with a significantly lower risk of breast cancer compared to low intake of PUFA (OR=0.4, 95%CI=0.19-0.85). Low (<0.2) omega-3/ omega-6 ratio (OR=2.04, 95%CI=0.996-4.17), fish consumption less than once every six months (OR=3.37, 95%CI=1.57-7.23) and being overweight (OR=2.07, 95%CI=1.3-3.3) were associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Residents of rural areas had a significantly higher risk compared to women from urban areas (OR=1.8, 95%CI=1.06-3.03).
CONCLUSION: High intake of PUFA can decrease the risk of breast cancer, while the low omega-3/omega-6 ratio increases the risk. In addition, overweight state, eliminating fish from the diet and living in rural areas can also increase the risk of breast cancer.