Consumption of citrus and cruciferous vegetables with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus based on a meta-analysis of prospective study.
Prim Care Diabetes. 2016 Jan 6. Epub 2016 Jan 6. PMID: 26778708
BACKGROUND: Observational studies and meta-analyses suggested that increased total fruits and vegetables consumption have a protective role in incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, we still don't know whether the subtypes, such as citrus fruits and cruciferous vegetables (CV), have a preventive role.
METHODS: We systematically searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases up to December 31, 2014. Summary relative risks (SRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random-effects models.
RESULTS: Seven distinct prospective cohort studies (five articles) were identified for this study. A total of 16,544 incident cases of type 2 diabetes were ascertained among 306,723 participants with follow-up periods ranging from 4.6 to 24 years. Based on four prospective cohort studies, we found that overall, consumption of CV had a protective role in the T2DM incidence (highest vs. lowest analysis: SRR=0.84, 95% CI: 0.73 to 0.96), with evidence of significant heterogeneity (P=0.09, I(2)=54.4%). This association was independent of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease: smoking, alcohol use, BMI, and physical activity etc. Consumption of citrus fruits did not have a protective role in the T2DM development (highest vs. lowest analysis: SRR=1.02, 95% CI: 0.96 to 1.08), with no evidence of significant heterogeneity (P=0.49, I(2)=0).
CONCLUSIONS: Higher consumption of CV, but not citrus fruits, is associated with a significantly decreased risk of type 2 diabetes. Further large prospective studies are needed to elucidate both relationships.