Dietary intake of minerals in relation to depressive symptoms in Japanese employees: the Furukawa Nutrition and Health Study.
Nutrition. 2015 May ;31(5):686-90. Epub 2014 Dec 3. PMID: 25837213
OBJECTIVE: Although intake of minerals has been suggested to be beneficial against depression, epidemiologic data from free-living settings are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the cross-sectional associations between the intake of magnesium, calcium, iron, and zinc and the prevalence of depressive symptoms in Japanese employees.
METHODS: Participants were 1792 men and 214 women ages 19 to 69 y. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated, brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. Participants with depressive symptoms were defined as those with a scale score of ≥16 on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale.
RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 27.8%. Intakes of magnesium, calcium, iron, and zinc were inversely associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms. The multivariate adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of having depressive symptoms were 0.63 (0.44-0.91), 0.64 (0.47-0.88), 0.59 (0.40-0.87), and 0.63 (0.45-0.87) in the highest versus lowest tertiles of magnesium, calcium, iron, and zinc, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Results suggest that higher dietary intake of magnesium, calcium, iron, and zinc is associated with lower prevalence of depressive symptoms in Japanese employees.