Higher nut consumption may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Higher nut consumption may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Coron Artery Dis. 2015 Dec 23. Epub 2015 Dec 23. PMID: 26704188
OBJECTIVES: Amounts of epidemiological studies have evaluated the relationship between nut consumption and coronary heart disease (CHD). However, their results remained inconsistent. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis of eligible trials to assess the CHD risk for the highest versus the lowest categories of nut consumption, and the dose-response association of CHD for every 1 serving/week increment in nut consumption.
METHODS: We searched for prospective trials or case-control studies published before January 2014, using PubMed and Web of Knowledge databases. Pooled relative risk (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using the inverse-variance method. The dose-response relationship was assessed by restricted cubic spline and variance-weighted least squares regression analysis. Publication bias was estimated using Egger's regression asymmetry test.
RESULTS: Ten articles with 14 studies including 6302 CHD cases were included in this meta-analysis. Pooled estimates showed that compared with the lowest nut consumption amount, the highest amount was associated significantly with a lower risk of CHD [summary RR=0.681, 95% CI=0.592-0.783, I=62.7%], especially among USA (summary RR=0.671, 95% CI=0.591-0.761) and prospective studies (summary RR=0.660, 95% CI=0.581-0.748). The test for linear dose-response relationship was significant, and the risk of CHD decreased by 10% for every 1 serving/week increase intake of nut (summary RR=0.90, 95% CI=0.87-0.94) No publication bias was observed among studies using Egger's test, which suggested there was no evidence of publication bias.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that higher nut consumption may reduce the risk of CHD, especially in the USA. More prospective well-conducted trials are warranted to further evaluate the association.