Huperzine A attenuates nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Huperzine A attenuates nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by regulating hepatocyte senescence and apoptosis: an in vitro study.
PeerJ. 2018 ;6:e5145. Epub 2018 Jun 26. PMID: 29967757
Objective: This study was undertaken to detect if free fatty acids (FFA) induce hepatocyte senescence in L-02 cells and if huperzine A has an anti-aging effect in fatty liver cells.
Methods: L-02 cells were treated with a FFA mixture (oleate/palmitate, at 3:0, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2 and 0:3 ratios) at different concentrations. Cell viability and fat accumulation rate were assessed by a Cell Counting Kit 8 and Nile Red staining, respectively. The mixture with the highest cell viability and fat accumulation rate was selected to continue with the following experiment. The L-02 cells were divided into five groups, including the control group, FFA group, FFA + 0.1μmol/L huperzine A (LH) group, FFA + 1.0 μmol/L huperzine A (MH) group and FFA + 10 μmol/L huperzine A (HH) group, and were cultured for 24 h. The expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) was detected by an SA-β-gal staining kit. The expression levels of aging genes weremeasured by qRT-PCR. The expression levels of apoptosis proteins were detected by a Western blot. ELISA kits were used to detect inflammatory factors and oxidative stress products. The expression of nuclear factor (NF-κB) and IκBα were detected by immunofluorescence.
Results: The FFA mixture (oleate/palmitate, at a 2:1 ratio) of 0.5 mmol/L had the highest cell viability and fat accumulation rate, which was preferable for establishing an in vitro fatty liver model. The expression of inflammatory factors (TNF-α and IL-6) and oxidants Malonaldehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) also increased in the L-02 fatty liver cells. The expression levels of aging markers and aging genes, such as SA-β-gal, p16, p21, p53 and pRb, increased more in the L-02 fatty liver cells than inthe L-02 cells. The total levels of the apoptosis-associated proteins Bcl2, Bax, Bax/Bcl-2, CyCt and cleaved caspase 9 were also upregulated in the L-02 fatty liver cells. All of the above genes and proteins were downregulated in the huperzine A and FFA co-treatment group. In the L-02 fatty liver cells, the expression of IκBα decreased, while the expression of NF-κB increased. After the huperzine A and FFA co-treatment, the expression of IκBα increased, while the expression of NF-κB decreased.
Conclusion: Fatty liver cells showed an obvious senescence and apoptosis phenomenon. Huperzine A suppressed hepatocyte senescence, and it might exert its anti-aging effect via the NF-κB pathway.