Involvement of Intracellular and Mitochondrial Aβ in the Ameliorative Effects of Huperzine A against Oligomeric Aβ42-Induced Injury in Primary Rat Neurons.
PLoS One. 2015 ;10(5):e0128366. Epub 2015 May 29. PMID: 26024517
Considerable studies indicate huperzine A is a promising natural product to suppress neuronal damages induced byβ-amyloid (Aβ), a key pathogenic event in the Alzheimer's disease (AD). As an extension, the present study for the first time explored whether the beneficial profiles of huperzine A against oligomeric Aβ(42) induced neurotoxicity are associated with the accumulation and detrimental function of intraneuronal/mitochondrial Aβ, on the basis of the emerging evidence that intracellular Aβ is more relevant to AD progression as compared with extracellular Aβ. Huperzine A treatment was shown to significantly attenuate the neurotoxicity of oligomeric Aβ(42), as demonstrated by increased neuronalviability. Interestingly, our results proved that exogenous Aβ(42) could accumulate intraneuronally in a dose- and time-dependent manner, while huperzine A treatment markedly reduced the level of intracellular Aβ(42). Moreover, huperzine A treatment rescued mitochondrial dysfunction induced by oligomeric Aβ(42), including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) reduction, reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction and membrane potential depolarization. Further study demonstrated that huperzine A also significantly reduced the level of Aβ(42) in the mitochondria-enriched subcellular fractions, as well as the Aβ(42) fluorescent signals colocalized with mitochondrial marker. This study indicates that interfering intracellular Aβ especially mitochondrial Aβ accumulation, together with ameliorating Aβ-associated mitochondrial dysfunction, may contribute to the protective effects of huperzineA against Aβ neurotoxicity. Above results may shed more light on the pharmacological mechanisms of huperzine A and provide important clues for discovering novel therapeutic strategies for AD.