Hydrogen-rich water regulates effects of ROS balance on morphology, growth and secondary metabolism via glutathione peroxidase in Ganoderma lucidum.
Environ Microbiol. 2017 02 ;19(2):566-583. Epub 2016 Sep 9. PMID: 27554678
Ganoderma lucidum is one of the most important medicinal fungi, but the lack of basic study on the fungus has hindered the further development of its value. To investigate the roles of the redox system in G. lucidum, acetic acid (HAc) was applied as a reactive oxygen species (ROS) stress inducer, and hydrogen-rich water (HRW) was used to relieve the ROS stress in this study. Our results demonstrate that the treatment of 5% HRW significantly decreased the ROS content, maintained biomass and polar growth morphology of mycelium, and decreased secondary metabolism under HAc-induced oxidative stress. Furthermore, the roles of HRW were largely dependent on restoring the glutathione system under HAc stress in G. lucidum. To provide further evidence, we used two glutathione peroxidase (GPX)-defective strains, the gpxi strain, the mercaptosuccinic acid (MS, a GPX inhibitor)-treated wide-type (WT) strain, and gpx overexpression strains for further research. The results show that HRW was unable to relieve the HAc-induced ROS overproduction, decreased biomass, mycelium morphology change and increased secondary metabolism biosynthesis in the absence of GPX function. The gpx overexpression strains exhibited resistance to HAc-induced oxidative stress. Thus, we propose that HRW regulates morphology, growth and secondary metabolism via glutathione peroxidase under HAc stress in the fungus G. lucidum. Furthermore, our research also provides a method to study the ROS system in other fungi.