The hydrolysis of saponin-rich extracts from fenugreek and quinoa improves their pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity and hypocholesterolemic effect.
Food Chem. 2021 Feb 15 ;338:128113. Epub 2020 Sep 22. PMID: 33092009
Joaquín Navarro Del Hierro
Saponins are promising compounds for ameliorating hyperlipidemia but scarce information exists about sapogenins, the hydrolyzed forms of saponins. Saponin-rich extracts and their hydrolysates from fenugreek (FE, HFE) and quinoa (QE, HQE), and saponin and sapogenin standards, were assessed on the inhibition of pancreatic lipase and interference on the bioaccessibility of cholesterol by in vitro digestion models. All extracts inhibited pancreatic lipase (ICbetween 1.15 and 0.59 mg/mL), although the hydrolysis enhanced the bioactivity of HQE (p = 0.014). The ICvalue significantly correlated to the saponin content (r = -0.82; p = 0.001). Only the hydrolyzed extracts showed a reduction of bioaccessible cholesterol (p < 0.001) higher than that of phytosterols (35% reduction). Sapogenin standards exhibited no bioactivities, protodioscin and hederacoside C slightly inhibited the lipase (around 10%) and protodioscin reduced the bioaccessible cholesterol (23% reduction, p = 0.035). The hydrolysis process of saponin-rich extracts enhances the bioactivity and allows developing multibioactive products against pancreatic lipase and cholesterol absorption simultaneously.