Hydroxytyrosol ameliorates oxidative challenge and inflammatory response associated with lipopolysaccharide-mediated sepsis in mice.
Hum Exp Toxicol. 2020 Aug 25:960327120949618. Epub 2020 Aug 25. PMID: 32840384
Mohamed A Alblihed
Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is among the main bioactive ingredients isolated from olive tree with a variety of biological and pharmacological activities. In the current study, the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of HT were distinguished in the splenic tissue following lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated septic response. Thirty-five Swiss mice were divided into five groups (n = 7): control, HT (40 mg/kg), LPS (10 mg/kg), HT 20 mg+LPS and HT 40 mg+LPS. HT was administered for 10 days, while a single LPS dose was applied. The obtained findings demonstrate that HT administration enhanced the survival rate and decreased lactate dehydrogenase level in LPS-challenged mice. Treatment with HT inhibited the incidence of oxidative damage in splenic tissue through decreasing lipoperoxidation and increasing antioxidant molecules, namely glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase. HT also decreased total leukocytes count, C-reactive protein, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and myeloperoxidase levels. Additionally, HT suppressed the production levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6. Moreover, mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide production were increased after HT administration. Furthermore, HT supplementation resulted in a downregulation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, inhibited the activation of the nuclear factor kappa-B from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, and attenuated infiltration of activated immune cells and tissue injury following LPS injection. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of HT against LPS-mediated inflammation and sepsis. Therefore, HT could be applied as an alternative anti-inflammatory agent to minimize or prevent the development of systemic inflammatory response associated with septic shock.