Hydroxytyrosol and Cytoprotection: A Projection for Clinical Interventions.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Apr 28 ;18(5). Epub 2017 Apr 28. PMID: 28452954
Hydroxytyrosol (HT) ((3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol) is a polyphenol mainly present in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) but also in red wine. It has a potent antioxidant effect related to hydrogen donation, and the ability to improve radical stability. The phenolic content of olive oil varies between 100 and 600 mg/kg, due to multiple factors (place of cultivation, climate, variety of the olive and level of ripening at the time of harvest), with HT and its derivatives providing half of that content. When consumed, EVOO's phenolic compounds are hydrolyzed in the stomach and intestine, increasing levels of free HT which is then absorbed in the small intestine, forming phase II metabolites. It has been demonstrated that HT consumption is safe even at high doses, and that is not genotoxic or mutagenic in vitro. The beneficial effects of HT have been studied in humans, as well as cellular and animal models, mostly in relation to consumption of EVOO. Many properties, besides its antioxidant capacity, have been attributed to this polyphenol. The aim of this review was to assess the main properties of HT for human health with emphasis on those related to the possible prevention and/or treatment of non-communicable diseases.