Hydroxytyrosol promotes autophagy by regulating SIRT1 against advanced oxidation protein product‑induced NADPH oxidase and inflammatory response.
Int J Mol Med. 2019 Oct ;44(4):1531-1540. Epub 2019 Aug 5. PMID: 31432093
Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) can trigger NADPH oxidase (NOX) and lead to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a phenolic composite in olive oil that has antioxidant and anti‑inflammatory effects and enhances autophagy. Early research has revealed that HT can activate the silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) pathway to induce autophagy and alleviate the cartilage inflammatory response caused by H2O2. However, whether HT can attenuate AOPP‑induced NOX and inflammatory responses remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate how HT can alleviate the damage caused by AOPPs. In cell experiments, chondrocytes were pre‑stimulated with HT and then exposed to AOPPs. First, it was found that HT promoted autophagy through the SIRT1 pathway, increased the expression of autophagy‑related proteins including microtubule‑associated protein 1 light chain 3, autophagy related (ATG)5 and ATG7, and decreased the expression of P62. Furthermore, HT reduced the expression of NOX, which was affected by AOPPs in chondrocytes through the SIRT1 pathway.Finally, the expression of inflammatory cytokines caused by AOPPs was downregulated following HT treatment. In conclusion, it was found that HT reduced the expression of NOX and inhibited the inflammatory response caused by AOPPs in chondrocytes through the SIRT1 pathway.