Hydroxytyrosol restores proper insulin signaling in an astrocytic model of Alzheimer's disease.
Biofactors. 2017 Jul 8 ;43(4):540-548. Epub 2017 Mar 20. PMID: 28317262
M Carmen Crespo
Recent epidemiological evidence demonstrated that diabetes is a risk factor for AD onset and development. Indeed, meta-analyses of longitudinal epidemiologic studies show that diabetes increases AD risk by 50-100%, being insulin resistance (IR) the main binding link between diabetes and AD. Astrocytes are the foremost cerebral macroglial cells and are responsible for converting glucose into lactate and transfer it to neurons that use it as fuel, but Aβ(1-42) impairs insulin signaling and glycogen storage. Recent prospective studies showed that the Mediterranean diet is associated with lower incidence of AD. We hypothesized that hydroxytyrosol (HT, the preeminent polyphenol of olives and olive oil) could exert beneficial effects on IR associatedwith AD and investigated it mechanisms of action in an astrocytic model of AD. The astrocytic cell line C6 was exposed to Aβ(25-35) and co-incubated with HT for different periods. After treatment with Aβ(25-35), astrocytes' viability was significantly decreased as compared with controls; however,both pre- and post-treatment with HT prevented this effect. Mechanistically, we found that the preventive role of HT on Aβ(25-35)- induced cytotoxicity in astrocytes is moderated by an increased HT-induced activation of Akt, which is mediated by the insulin signaling pathway. In addition, we report that HT prevented the pronounced activation of mTOR, thereby restoring proper insulin signaling. In conclusion, we demonstrate that HT protects Aβ(25-35)-treated astrocytes by improving insulin sensitivity and restoring proper insulin-signaling. These data provide some mechanistic insight on theobserved inverse association between olive oil consumption and prevalence of cognitive impairment. © 2017 BioFactors, 43(4):540-548, 2017.