Hyperoside attenuates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease through targeting Nr4A1 in macrophages.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2021 May ;94:107438. Epub 2021 Feb 19. PMID: 33611063
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance and a systemic pro-inflammatory response. To date, no medications for NAFLD have been approved by relevant governmental agencies. Emerging evidence indicates that innate immune mechanisms are pivotal drivers of inflammation and other pathological manifestations observed in NAFLD. Hyperoside, a flavonoid compound mainly found in medicinal plants, has many biological effects, but the role of hyperoside in the physiological process of NAFLD is poorly defined. This study demonstrated that hyperoside exerts protective effects against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and regulates macrophage polarization in an Nr4A1-dependent manner. After 16 weeks on a HFD, hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, and inflammatory responses were significantly ameliorated in hyperoside-treated HFD-fed wild-type mice, and hyperoside facilitated the polarization of macrophages from the pro-inflammatory M1 to the anti-inflammatory M2 subtype. Nr4A1 was found to be upregulated in hyperoside-treated HFD-fed mice, and hyperoside did not improve HFD-induced NAFLD or regulate macrophage polarization in Nr4A1-deficient mice. In conclusion, hyperoside may have therapeutic potential in preventing the pathological progression of NAFLD.