Immunomodulatory effects of mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes on experimental type-1 autoimmune diabetes.
J Cell Biochem. 2018 Aug 3. Epub 2018 Aug 3. PMID: 30074271
Exosomes derived from adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) have immunomodulatory effects of T-cell inflammatory response and reduction of clinical symptoms on streptozotocin-induced of the type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Beside control group and untreated T1DM mice, a group of T1DM mice was treated with intraperitoneal injections of characterized exosomes derived from autologous AD-MSCs. Body weight and blood glucose levels were measured during the procedure. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry were used for evaluation of pancreatic islets using hemotoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and anti-insulin antibody. Isolated splenic mononuclear cells (MNCs) were subjected to splenocytes proliferation assay using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, immunophenotyping of regulatory T cells and cytokines. A significant increase in the levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-10, and transforming growth factor-β, and a decrease in the levels of IL-17 and interferon-γ in concordance with the significant increase in the Treg cell ratio in splenic MNCs (P < 0.05) was shown in T1DM mice treated with AD-MSC's exosomes as compared to T1DM untreated mice. This amelioration of autoimmune reaction after treatment of T1DM mice with the AD-MSC exosomes was confirmed with a significant increase in islets using H&E staining and Immunohistochemistry analyses. As expected, body weight, blood glucose levels in a survival of T1DM mice treated with AD-MSC's exosomes were maintained stable in comparison to untreated T1DM mice. It can be concluded that AD-MSC's exosomes exert ameliorative effects on autoimmune T1DM through increasing regulatory T-cell population and their products without a change in the proliferation index of lymphocytes, which makes them more effective and practical candidates.