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Abstract Title:

Impact of Gut Microbiota on Gut-distal Autoimmunity: A focus on T cells.

Abstract Source:

Immunology. 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17. PMID: 30560993

Abstract Author(s):

Maran L Sprouse, Nicholas A Bates, Krysta M Felix, Hsin-Jung Joyce Wu

Article Affiliation:

Maran L Sprouse

Abstract:

The immune system is essential for maintaining a delicate balance between eliminating pathogens and maintaining tolerance to self-tissues to avoid autoimmunity. An enormous and complex community of gut microbiota provides essential health benefits to the host, particularly by regulating immune homeostasis. Many of the metabolites derived from commensals can impact host health by directly regulating the immune system. Many autoimmune diseases arise from an imbalance between pathogenic effector T cells and regulatory T (Tregs) cells. Recent interest has emerged in understanding how crosstalk between gut microbiota and the host immune system promote autoimmune development by controlling the differentiation and plasticity of T helper and Treg cells. At the molecular level, our recent study along with others demonstrate that asymptomatic colonization by commensal bacteria in the gut is capable of triggering autoimmune disease by molecular mimicking self-antigen and skewing the expression of dual T cell receptors on T cells. Dysbiosis, an imbalance of the gut microbiota, is involved in autoimmune development in both mice and humans. While it is well known that dysbiosis can impact diseases occurring within the gut, growing literature suggests that dysbiosis also cause the development of gut-distal/non-gut autoimmunity. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the potential molecular mechanisms whereby gut microbiota induce autoimmunity, and the evidence that gut microbiota trigger gut-distal autoimmune diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Study Type : Review

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