The Effect of Changing Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations on Metabolic Syndrome: A Longitudinal Analysis of Participants of a Preventive Health Program.
Nutrients. 2015 ;7(9):7271-84. Epub 2015 Aug 28. PMID: 26343719
Several studies have shown that a poor vitamin D status may increase the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, which leaves the question whether improving one's vitamin D status may reduce the risk for the syndrome. Here we investigate the effect of temporal changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations on metabolic syndrome among Canadians enrolled in a preventive health program that promotes vitamin D supplementation. We accessed and analyzed data of 6682 volunteer participants with repeated observations on serum 25(OH)D concentrations and metabolic syndrome. We applied logistic regression to quantify the independent contribution of baseline serum 25(OH)D and temporal increases in serum 25(OH)D to the development of metabolic syndrome. In the first year in the program, participants, on average, increased their serum 25(OH)D concentrations by 37 nmol/L. We observed a statistical significant inverse relationship of increases in serum 25(OH)D with risk for metabolic syndrome. Relative to those without improvements, those who improved their serum 25(OH)D concentrations with less 25 nmol/L, 25 to 50 nmol/L, 50 to 75 nmol/L, and more 75 nmol/L had respectively 0.76, 0.64, 0.59, 0.56 times the risk for metabolic syndrome at follow up. These estimates were independent of the effect of baseline serum 25(OH)D concentrations on metabolic syndrome. Improvement of vitamin D status may help reduce the public health burden of metabolic syndrome, and potential subsequent health conditions including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.