Inactivation Effect of Thymoquinone onVegetative Cells, Spores, and Biofilms.
Front Microbiol. 2021 ;12:679808. Epub 2021 Jun 2. PMID: 34149671
(), a spore-forming bacterium, has become a main challenge and concern for the juices and acid beverage industry across the world due to its thermo-acidophilic characteristic. Thymoquinone (TQ) is one of the active components derived fromseeds. The objective of this study was to investigate antibacterial activity and associated molecular mechanism of TQ againstvegetative cells, and to evaluate effects of TQ onspores and biofilms formed on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of TQ against five testedstrains ranged from 32 to 64μg/mL. TQ could destroy bacterial cell morphology and membrane integrity in a concentration-dependent manner. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy observation showed that TQ caused abnormal morphology of spores and thus exerted a killing effect on spores. Moreover, TQ was effective in inactivating and removingmature biofilms. These findings indicated that TQ is promising as a new alternative to controland thereby reduce associated contamination and deterioration in the juice and acid beverage industry.