Article Publish Status: FREE
Abstract Title:

Increasing Nitrate-Rich Vegetable Intake Lowers Ambulatory Blood Pressure in (pre)Hypertensive Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A 12-Wk Randomized Controlled Trial.

Abstract Source:

J Nutr. 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3. PMID: 34236392

Abstract Author(s):

Cindy M T van der Avoort, Dominique S M Ten Haaf, Coen C W G Bongers, Frederieke van Oorschot, Lex B Verdijk, Luc J C van Loon, Maria T E Hopman

Article Affiliation:

Cindy M T van der Avoort


BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that increasing dietary nitrate intake may be an effective approach to improve cardiovascular health. However, the effects of a prolonged elevation of nitrate intake through an increase in vegetable consumption are understudied.

OBJECTIVE: Our primary aim was to determine the impact of 12 wk of increased daily consumption of nitrate-rich vegetables or nitrate supplementation on blood pressure (BP) in (pre)hypertensive middle-aged and older adults.

METHODS: In a 12-wk randomized, controlled study (Nijmegen, The Netherlands), 77 (pre)hypertensive participants (BP: 144 ± 13/87 ± 7 mmHg, age: 65 ± 10 y) either received an intervention with personalized monitoring and feedback aiming to consume ∼250-300 g nitrate-rich vegetables/d (∼350-400 mg nitrate/d; n = 25), beetroot juice supplementation (400 mg nitrate/d; n = 26), or no intervention (control; n = 26). Before and after intervention, 24-h ambulatory BP was measured. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA (time × treatment), followed by within-group (paired t-test) and between-group analyses (1-factor ANOVA) where appropriate.

RESULTS: The 24-h systolic BP (SBP) (primary outcome) changed significantly (P-interaction time× treatment = 0.017) with an increase in the control group (131 ± 8 compared with 135 ± 10 mmHg; P = 0.036); a strong tendency for a decline in the nitrate-rich vegetable group (129 ± 10 compared with 126 ± 9 mmHg; P = 0.051) which was different from control (P = 0.020); but nochange in the beetroot juice group (133 ± 11 compared with 132 ± 12 mmHg; P = 0.56). A significant time × treatment interaction was also found for daytime SBP (secondary outcome, P = 0.011), with a significant decline in the nitrate-rich vegetable group (134 ± 10 compared with 129 ± 9 mmHg; P = 0.006) which was different from control (P = 0.010); but no changes in the beetroot juice (138 ± 12 compared with 137 ± 14 mmHg; P = 0.41) and control group (136 ± 10 compared with 137 ± 11 mmHg; P = 0.08). Diastolic BP (secondary outcome) did not change in any of the groups.

CONCLUSIONS: A prolonged dietary intervention focusing on high-nitrate vegetable intake is an effective strategy to lower SBP in (pre)hypertensive middle-aged and older adults. This trial was registered at www.trialregister.nl as NL7814.

Study Type : Human Study
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