Indole-3-carbinol generates reactive oxygen species and induces apoptosis.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2011 ;34(10):1602-8. PMID: 21963502
Cruciferous vegetables contain glucobrassicin which, during metabolism, yields indole-3-carbinol (I3C). The aim of this study was to find whether indole-3-carbinol caused apoptosis and its mechanism in Candida albicans. We found that treatment of Candida albicans with indole-3-carbinol significantly increased the reactive oxygen species and hydroxyl radical accumulation. The hydroxyl radical is one of the most active components of oxygen, and it is the end product of an oxidative damage cellular death pathway. We investigated the general phenotypes of apoptosis and then investigated whether there were other distinct markers of apoptosis. Furthermore, the effects of thiourea as a hydroxyl radical scavenger and protective effect of trehalose, which is the result of the fungal immune system, was also assured. This study indicates that indole-3-carbinol has apoptosis effects, including a production of hydroxyl radicals, cytochrome c release and activation of metacaspase. Both hydroxyl radicals and metacaspases triggered apoptosis in Candida albicans.