Modulation of (-)-epicatechin metabolism by coadministration with other polyphenols in Caco-2 cell model.
Drug Metab Dispos. 2015 Jan ;43(1):9-16. Epub 2014 Oct 14. PMID: 25315342
Widely consumed beverages such as red wine, tea, and cocoa-derived products are a great source of flavanols. Epidemiologic and interventional studies suggest that cocoa flavanols such as (-)-epicatechin may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The interaction of (-)-epicatechin with food components including other polyphenols could modify its absorption, metabolism, and finally its bioactivity. In the present study we investigate (-)-epicatechin absorption and metabolism when coexposed with other polyphenols in the intestinal absorptive Caco-2 cell model. Depending on the type of polyphenols coadministered, the total amount of 3'-O-methyl-epicatechin and 3'-O-sulfate-epicatechin conjugates found both in apical and basal compartments ranged from 19 to 801 nM and from 6 to 432 nM, respectively. The coincubation of (-)-epicatechin with flavanols, chlorogenic acid, and umbelliferone resulted in similar amounts of 3'-O-methyl-epicatechin effluxed into the apical compartment relative to control. Coincubation with isorhamnetin, kaempferol, diosmetin, nevadensin, chrysin, equol, genistein, and hesperitin promoted the transport of 3'-O-methyl-epicatechin toward the basolateral side and decreased the apical efflux. Quercetin and luteolin considerably inhibited the appearance of this (-)-epicatechin conjugate both in the apical and basolateral compartments. In conclusion, we could demonstrate that the efflux of (-)-epicatechin conjugates to the apical or basal compartments of Caco-2 cells is modulated by certain classes of polyphenols and their amount. Ingesting (-)-epicatechin with specific polyphenols could be a strategy to increase the bioavailability of (-)-epicatechin and to modulate its metabolic profile.